BioEvolution, Vol 2 (1) January 2015
MICROBIAL ENZYMES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO α-AMYLASE
Tejasvi Kaur Sahni and Dr. Arti Goel
Abstract: Modern molecular techniques, such as metagenomics modified by different strategies are used for analysis of microbial enzymes. Bacteria and fungi produce the majority of industrial microbial enzymes. Production of enzyme is carries out using submerged fermentation and also solid state fermentation in some cases. α-Amylase (1,4- α -D-glucanohydrolase; EC18.104.22.168) is responsible for hydrolysis of the α-1,4-glucosidic linkage in starch and other similar molecules. It is one of the many enzymes involved in starch degradation.
Enzymes like amylases- starch converting enzymes, are important in production of glucose and fructose syrups, modified starches. For isolation and optimization of a-amylase from bacillus species, an α-amylase producing bacillus species is isolated from a soil sample and the soluble starch amylase was characterized. Then, the optimum pH activity, temperature activity and substrate concentration for bacterial growth is observed. The purification of the enzyme is then carried out and the enzyme growth is then recorded.
Keywords- Microbial enzymes, α-Amylase, Starch, α – 1, 4 – glycosidic bonds.
Wireless Control of Micropump System Using Flexible Circuit Board for Implantable Drug Delivery Applications
Pao-Cheng Huang, Yu-Shu Chang, Sheng Jang, Min-Haw Wang
Abstract: This paper provides a wireless implantable micropump system by flexible printed circuit board (FPCB). For normal electronic circuit design, the FR4 glass epoxy is famous in printed circuit board (PCB). Nevertheless, these PCBs are not suitable for portable device and biological applications due to the irregular surface. Therefore, a FPCB is performed for flexible application and helps to shrink the system into portable device. The micropump mainly consists of a wireless communication circuit, an antenna and a piezoelectric peristaltic micropump driving circuit.
The experimental results demonstrate that the FPCB based wireless control of micropump system can deliver fluid in rates of 20ml/hr to 120ml/hr. The experimental results show that this system has minimum deviation in 0.00083. FPCB has the advantage of light, thin, flexible and suitable for portable device and animal experiments applications.
Keyword: Micropump, Flexible Printed Circuit Board (FPCB), Wireless, Drug Delivery, Biomedical.
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AS A GENE THERAPY: FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
Nameet Kaur and Nidhee Chaudhary
Abstract: As major antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SODs), including copper–zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), and extracellular superoxide dismutase, plays a crucial role in scavenging oxide radicals, capable of neutralizing free radicals or their actions, act at different stages. They act at the levels of prevention, interception and repair. Preventive antioxidants attempt to stop the formation of ROS. These include superoxide dismutase (SOD) that catalyses the dismutation of superoxide to H2O2 and catalase that breaks it down to water.
Keywords: Anti-oxidants, Enzymes, Free Radicals, Genes
The Fabrication and Identification of Hyaluronic Acid-Formulated Iron Oxide Nanoclusters
Ming-Hsiang Chang, Yi-Hua Cheng, Shih-Chiang Pan, Syu-Ming Lai, and Ping-Shan Lai
Abstract: In this study, authors developed a simple emulsion and solvent-evaporation approach for clustering of iron oxide nanoparticles using hyaluronic acid (HA). Notably, this synthesis approach displaying highly production and waste reduction were the greener method. To obtain well-constructed clusters of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP), the synthetic parameter of IO/HA ratio was investigated and were highly stable in storage at room temperature. In addition, IONP clusters with 500 μM remained the viability of HT29 cells over 84%. Thus, these clusters, which were prepared with the use of hyaluronic acid, can potentially serve as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance applications. Furthermore, due to the overexpress CD-44 which has a special interaction with HA on the tumor cell’s membrane, these clusters also can potentially enhance the therapeutic effect.
Keyword: Iron oxide nanoparticles, Hyaluronic acid, Magnetic resonance imaging, Clusters
ECO-FRIENDLY PLANT PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FORAGES
Ritu Mawar, A K Mall and S R Kantwa
Abstract: Fodder crops are the plant species that are cultivated and harvested for feeding the animals in the form of forage, silage and hay. The cultivated forage crops include many plant species such as sorghum, maize, pearl millet, cowpea, guar, berseem, lucerne, oats and several grasses. These forage crops are affected by a large number of diseases and pests. Diseases not only reduce the herbage yield but also affect the nutritional quality as well. Various cultural practices can reduce the infection to some extent; however, if the environmental condition favors the spread of diseases and pests, then use of chemicals or resistant varieties is the only option of management. However, the development of resistant varieties is the most desirable approach in sustainable agricultural system. The All India Coordinated Research Project on Fodder Crops, with its 21 centers covering all the major agro-climatic situations of the country, is engaged in research on all the facets of technology development relating to forage crops.
Keywords: Plant protection, Fodder crops, Germplasm,
Perception Intensity and Frequency of Pressure and Vibrations Elicited by Electrical Stimulation
Sun Hee Hwang, Tongjin Song and Gon Khang
Abstract: We investigated effects of the two stimulus parameters, the stimulation intensity represented by the pulse amplitude and the pulse frequency, on the tactile sensations elicited by single-channel transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Two types of experiments were conducted. In the current experiment, the current was modulated with the frequency fixed at 20 Hz and 200 Hz. In the frequency experiment, the stimulation frequency was modulated with the amplitude fixed at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mA, respectively. In the current experiment, tickling, pressure and the low-frequency vibration were elicited at 20 Hz in more than 90% of the subjects, but the high-frequency vibration mostly appeared at 200 Hz. The frequency experiment showed that the perceived vibration frequency increased with the stimulation frequency. However, the frequency at which the vibration appeared was consistent regardless of the stimulation intensity, implying that the stimulation intensity did not affect the perception frequency of the vibration.
Keyword: Tactile sensations, Electrical stimulation, Perception intensity, Pulse amplitude, Pulse frequency
PEPTIDE NANOPARTICLES: THERAPEUTIC DELIVERY VEHICLE
Divya Singhal and Neeta Bhagat
Abstract: The development of nano particle based drug delivery systems is rapidly growing due to their great therapeutic potential. Peptides are emerging as the new class of bio-materials due to their unique chemical, physical, and biological perties. Peptide based nano-particles can be of special choice of research scientist as peptides are bio-compatible, easy to design and synthesis, less immunogenic, and offer easy surface functionalization properties for targeted delivery. Peptide nano-particles are successfully derived from water soluble proteins (e.g., bovine and human serum albumin), insoluble proteins (e.g., Zein and Gliadin). Peptide NPs are used in gene therapy, drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, implants and tissue engineering and to deliver nano-particle to a particular subcellular compartment.
Keywords: Peptides, Nano-particles, Therapeutic, Biomaterials
A Remote Body Weight Care System
Shiannfong Huanga, Jia Cheng Yangb and Meng-Che Hsieha
Abstract: This study provides a system and method for monitoring one or more physiological parameters of a user. The system includes one or more wearable sensor modules sensing the one or more physiological parameters. One or more transmitters wirelessly transmit signals indicative of values of the one or more physiological parameters to a mobile monitor. The mobile monitor includes a processor processing the signals received from the transmitter in real time using expert knowledge. A device provides one or more indications of results of the processing.
Body fat is a major determinant of the resting rate of muscle sympathetic nerve discharge. This device can easily detect the activities of sympathetic neurotic through user’s mobile digital devices which access to the remote server and them provides user tailored suggestions for weight control.
Keyword: Sympathetic, Android 4.0, BMI, Heart Beat, Weight Control.