BioEvolution, Vol 2 (2) April 2015
1. Potential Anti-wrinkle Effects of M. Spaientum L. leaves Extract
Dae Sung Yoo*, Ji Min Jeon, Moon Jeong Choi, Hyun Sang Lee, Jong Woo Cheon, Seung Hoi Kim, Seong Ryu Ju
Abstract: To verify the efficacy of M. spaientum L. leaves extract as a cosmetic raw.Purified extract from 70% ethanol extract show most effective for anti-wrinkle efficacy within prepared samples. The active compound of banana leaves extract was analyzed with HPLC, NMR, IR, EA and MS identified to corosolic acid.Further studies such as in vivo efficacy test, stability, safety, delivery and etc will be conducted for developing new cosmetic raw material using banana leaves.
Key words: M. spaientum L., Banana leaf, Anti-wrinkle, Anti-aging, Cosmetics
2. Effect of Activators Solution on Motility and Fertilization of Frozen Black Shark, Labeo Chrysophekadion Spermatozoa
Phimphan Ladoktha, Samorn Ponchunchoovong*, Charoen Udomkarn
Abstract: In freshwater teleost, the spermatozoa are immotile in the testis and seminal plasma. The difference in osmolality between seminal plasma and external water is an important regulatory factor of sperm motility in many fish species. The initiation of sperm motility is triggered by increasing osmolality in marine fish or by decreasing osmolality in freshwater fish. Modified extender +DMSO (10%) and MC+DMSO (15%) were used to cryopreserve black shark, Labeo chrysophekadion sperm. Five activators solution (Tap water, 17mM NaCl+5 mM Tris–HCl, 0.3% NaCl, 100 mM KCl+20 mM Tris–HCl and SAS (50 mM NaCl+30 mM KCl+30 mM Tris–HCl) were used to examine the feasibility of activations solution of frozen black shark sperm. The highest percentage of motility (74%) fertilization (50%) and has a long time motile spermatozoa 61 s (P<0.05) was resulting from 0.3% NaCl as activator. Which has a lower osmotic pressure (96 mOsm kg-1) than that of frozen spermatozoa of black shark (251 mOsm kg-1). The present study found that increasing osmolality in 100 mM KCl+20 mM Tris-HCl (230 mOsm kg-1) and SAS (191 mOsm kg-1) solutions were decreasing in motility and fertilization percentages of black shark frozen sperm.
Keywords: Activators solution, Frozen Labeo chrysophekadion spermatozoa, Motility, Fertilization
3. Native Mosquitocidal Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents Against the Mosquito Vector, Culex Pipiens
Ashraf M. Ahmed
Abstract: Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis (Pf), both proved to be safe to living organisms and environment, were isolated from rural soil of Saudi Arabia, and evaluated for entomopathogenicity against 3rd larval stage of Culex pipiens. Spore-crystal mixture of the Bt isolate showed a mosquitocidal activity similar to that of the reference B. t. israelensis H14 (Bti-H14). However, toxin extract of Pf, identified as glycolipid
biosurfactants, showed 14 times higher toxicity than that of the Bti-H14. This significant difference in toxicity could be attributed to the difference in the bacterial product used as it was the purified crude toxins of pf compared to spore-crystal mixture of Bt isolate or Bti-H14. Light and electron microscopy showed destructive effects for the Pf toxin extract on the midgut epithelial layer of treated larvae. Epithelial cells were first appeared with cytoplasmic extensions followed by cellular and nuclear degradation. These data may be of a great help for stepping up an effective control measure against mosquito vectors in Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis, biocontrol, Culex pepiens, histological effects, morphological alterations
4. Optimizing Algaeculture for the Production of Biofuels
Tim C. Keenera*, Worrarat Thiansathita, Drew McAvoya, N.M. Lakshminarasimmana, Thunyalux Ratpukdib, and Patcharee Hovichitrb
Abstract: Algaeculture is the agrarian process of growing and harvesting algae for its many byproducts, including biodiesel. In previous reports the authors have reported on the growth and optimization for commercialization purposes of the microalgae species Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus), which has shown very good properties for use as a biodiesel feed stock. In previous studies the S. obliquus was cultured in a laboratory photobioreactor to determine the efficacy of using biogas as a carbon source for the microalgae’s growth. The biogas contained ~60%V CH4 and ~40%V CO2, and was derived from an anaerobic digester operating with animal wastes. The results showed that biogas is a viable carbon source for microalgae growth and that significant portions of the biogas’ CO2 can be utilized for algae growth. These results have been used for the basis of designing and constructing a pilot plant anaerobic digester-algae reactor system where food wastes have been used as the biodegradable organic substrate. The paper discusses the results obtained from the pilot plant operation to date and provides insights as to how algae production can become a major energy producing crop in Southeast Asia.
Keywords: algae, microalgae culture, algae growth, biogas, anaerobic digesters, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions.
5. The Effect of Total Meniscectomy on Biotribological Behaviour of Sheep Knee Joint
Ahmet C. Cilingir* and Osman H. Mete
Abstract: The meniscus is an important tissue to protect the knee joint from high joint loads therefore total meniscectomy leads to increase in friction and wear on knee joint and eventually causes osteoarthrit. It is difficult to investigate friction and wear on the whole joint in vivo and in vitro and the biotribological effect of meniscus was not widely studied in the articulating knee joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of meniscus on biotribological behavior of sheep knee joint using a joint friction and wear simulator. For this purpose adult sheep knee joints were cut and attached to a self-made joint simulator, which was used to apply a physiologic load and range of motion to the knee joint. The friction coefficient was read from the force/torque sensor on the simulator and the wear of the articular cartilage investigated virtually by using Idian ink. The friction coefficient increased for the knee joint without meniscus. Knee joint with meniscus showed no significant cartilage wear and degradation. However, the articular cartilage was entirely worn around the center of the contact upon removal of the meniscus. This study demonstrated that total meniscectomy leads to increase in friction coefficient which cause the surface fibrillation and eventually cartilage wear and degradation.
Keyword: Knee Joint, Meniscus, Articular Cartilage, Biotribology, Meniscectomy