International Journal of Students' Research in Technology & Management (IJSRTM) Vol 1 (2) April 2013
1. STRUCTURE AND TEXTURE SYNTHESIS Pragnesh Patel, Shailesh Gupta, Haider Zafar, Nilesh Deotale Abstract: An approach for filling-in blocks of missing data in wireless image transmission is presented in this paper. When compression algorithms such as JPEG are used as part of the wireless transmission process, images are first tiled into blocks of 8x8 pixels. When such images are transmitted over fading channels, the effects of noise can destroy entire blocks of the image. Instead of using common retransmission query protocols, we aim to reconstruct the lost data using correlation between the lost block and its neighbours. If the lost block contained structure, it is reconstructed using an image inpainting algorithm, while texture synthesis is used for the textured blocks. The switch between the two schemes is done in a fully automatic fashion based on the surrounding available blocks. The performance of this method is tested for various images and combinations of lost blocks. Keywords: Restoration, interpolation, inpainting, filling-in, texture synthesis, JPEG, wireless transmission ,compression.
2. CYBER SECURITY Mandar Tawde, Pooja Singh, Maithili Sawant, Girish Nair Abstract:This document gives information about Hacking. Some Types of hacking, some tools of hacking and some preventive measures in order to stop hacking. It will help every computer user for the security of his system. As hacking is very upcoming and serious problem for many fields, the study of cyber security is important. Keywords: The best way of offending is defending
3. BRAIN GATE Shruti Kotian, Sonal Karkhanis, Shivang Menon Abstract:As the power of modern computers grows alongside our understanding of the human brain, we move closer to making some pretty spectacular science fiction into reality. Consider the potential to manipulate computers or machinery with nothing more than a thought! Thousands of people around the world suffer from paralysis and loss of other bodily movement, rendering them dependent on others to perform even the most basic tasks. The mind-to-movement system that allows a quadriplegic man to control a computer using only his thoughts is a scientific milestone. This is the BRAIN GATE system. Brain gate system is based on ‘Cyber kinetics’ platform technology to- sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. A computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands. It would be a huge therapeutic application for people who have seizures, which leads to the idea of a ‘pacemaker for the brain’. Keywords: BCI (Brain-Computer Interface), motor cortex.
4. SPEED CONTROL MECHANISM USING TERRAIN DETECTION Ankit Nanavaty, Ruchi Patel, Ankit Kandoi Abstract:Information of texture to distinguish between the types of terrains in the environment are not defined by clear boundaries. In this paper we illustrate that an image consists of a composite texture of regions. Using Image Processing Algorithms, the type of the terrain is identified, and accordingly the appropriate velocity of the robot is derived, so that the robot can traverse over that particular terrain. It’s a real time process, and the speed of the robot changes with a change in the terrain in the environment. A video camera will be mounted on the robot, with a similar perspective to the driver, which takes the video of the road, with different classes of textures when the car is in motion. These textures (loose stones, grass, ground, concrete, asphalt, slopes) will then be processed using Image Processing Algorithms. Based on the results obtained after applying the algorithms, the velocity estimations are done and the speed of the robot changes accordingly. Keywords: Wavelet transform; WCF; FIS
5. WIRELESS EQUIPMENT CONTROL Sarang Sutavani, Pratik Borhade, RohitChoudhary, Milan Bhanushali Abstract: This paper aims at presenting the concept of wireless equipment control using microcontroller and ZigBee, the name of a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2006 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs), such as wireless headphones connecting with cell phones via short-range radio. The technology is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is targeted at radio-frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. Keywords: ZigBee, AT89C51 Microcontroller, RX-434 radio receiver, TRX-434 radio transmitter, ULN 2003 relay driver, CD4519 multiplexer.
6. IMAGE ENCRYPTION USING ELLIPTIC CURVE CRYPTOGRAPHY Ashutosh Shukla, Jay Shah, Nikhil Prabhu Abstract: This paper deals with encryption of image using Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC).Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public key cryptography based on algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. Basic ElGamal elliptic curve encryption is used for encryption of the image. It brings about confidential, authentication and integrity in the exchange of data. The primary benefit promised by ECC is a smaller key size, reducing storage and transmission requirements. Keywords: ECC, domain parameter generation, key pair generation, ElGamal encryption algorithm.
7. CIRCULAR MICROSTRIP TEXTILE ANTENNA Prof. Kiran Rathod, PranjalGupta, Bhavik Janjmera, Suchit Patel, Jignesh Bhagat Abstract:The speed of technology and its evolution with the help of human efforts and his thinking is growing like wildfire. Also the man machine relation has further taken forward big technical leaps in the world of Antenna and Microwave Technology. In near future we will see clothing and textile material to be lined up for antenna technology and together will be known as “Smart Clothes”. In this paper, circular microstrip for wearable application is been designed. This wearable is used to meet Bluetooth specifications and has been developed by using copper conducting parts and electrotextile (smart clothes). In this case jeans or cotton materials are used. Keywords: circular patch antenna, wearable antenna, radiation pattern, fabric characterization,gain.
8. SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ELLIPTICAL MICRO STRIP ANTENNA AT 750MHZ Kiran Rathod, Tushar Tanna, Raj Davda, Paresh Prajapati Abstract:In telecommunication industry, several types of antennas are used. The most common of which are the micro strip patch antennas (also known as printed antennas) or patch antenna. Patch antennas can be used in many types of communications links that may have varied requirements. A single patch antenna provides a maximum directive gain of around 6-9 dBi. We can design it to work at multiple frequencies. It is available in various shapes and configuration, most common of which is a rectangular micro strip antenna (RMSA).In this project we are designing single fed annular ring micro strip ntenna. The software used to model and simulate the micro strip patch antenna is ZeelandInc’s IE3D software. IE3D is a full-wave electromagnetic simulator based on the method of moments. It analyzes 3D and multilayer structures of general shapes. It has been widely used in the design of MICs, RFICs, patch antennas, wire antennas, and other RF/wireless antennas. An evaluation version of the software will be used to obtain the results.
9. CHEMICAL BATTERY AS SUBSTITUTE TO CONVENTIONAL FUEL Sahil Inamdar, Akshay Tharval, Bhoomika Sheth Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to solve the world fuel crisis with a simple household solution. We have highlighted the use of chemical cells for the same by making use of a working model of a small car. Our experiments demonstrate the use of lemon batteries as a substitute to the traditional alkaline batteries. Lemon juice containing citric acid makes up an excellent electrolyte using Copper and Magnesium as electrodes. The working of a cell is based on simple electrolytic cell which is a combination of redox reactions. The power drawn by the cell is directly proportional to the concentration of lemon juice used. A single lemon cell gives enough voltage to power an LED. During this experiment we found out that the current drawn per cell is very less. Connecting enough cells in series and parallel combinations draws enough power to run a motor of the car. Because of the small current being drawn the final battery was very bulky. To overcome this difficulty we found out various other solutions which can draw more power than lemon juice. They are • Bleach cell • Salt cell • Vinegar cell Among the above solutions, bleach cell is the most efficient and long lasting. All the above mentioned cells including the Lemon cell are eco friendly i.e. there isn’t any waste or toxic gases evolving. Using chemical cells and improvising them on a larger scale can certainly help reduce the energy crisis all over the world. Keywords: Alkaline batteries, concentration, electrolyte, series & parallel combinations.
10. DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE TO MEASURE THE BLADE TIP CLEARANCE OF AN AXIAL COMPRESSOR Dr. S.M.Khot, Dr.A.M.Pradeep, Sagar Chavan, Manasi Ghogare, Srushti Koli Abstract: Axial compressors, used in gas turbines, jet engines and also small scale power plants, are rotating, airfoil based compressors in which the working fluid flows parallel to the axis of rotation. There has been continuous struggle to maximize the efficiency of these compressors. One of the many ways to achieve the same is to minimize the tip clearance i.e. to reduce the distance between the blade tip and the housing. Experiments need to be conducted to measure the changes in the tip clearance while the compressor is operating. Conventional devices to measure this tip clearance have proven to be costly if a small scale application is under consideration. Our aim in this project is to develop a device which will measure the blade tip clearance of an axial flow compressor economically. The literature review, development of the device, its working and results will be discussed in this paper. Keywords- Tip Clearance Measurement, Eddy Current Probe, Data Storage Oscilloscope, Eddy Current Technique
11. GRAPHENE: THE ADVANCED MATERIAL Asim Kulkarni Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and nanotechnology. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a new dimension of physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications. Keywords: External quantum efficiency, Buckyballs, Van Der Waals forces.
12. NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES: SOLAR POND Tejas Gawade, Varun Shinde, Ketan Gawade Abstract: The sun is the largest source of renewable energy and this energy is abundantly available in all parts of the earth. It is in fact one of the best alternatives to the non-renewable sources of energy. One way to tap solar energy is through the use of solar ponds. Solar ponds are large-scale energy collectors with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. It can be use for various applications, such as process heating, water desalination, refrigeration, drying and power generation. The solar pond works on a very simple principle. It is well-known that water or air is heated they become lighter and rise upward e.g. a hot air balloon. Similarly, in an ordinary pond, the sun’s rays heat the water and the heated water from within the pond rises and reaches the top but loses the heat into the atmosphere. The net result is that the pond water remains at the atmospheric temperature. The solar pond restricts this tendency by dissolving salt in the bottom layer of the pond making it too heavy to rise. Though solar ponds can be constructed anywhere, it is economical to construct them at places where there is low cost salt and bittern, good supply of sea water or water for filling and flushing, high solar radiation, and availability of land at low cost. Keywords: Solar thermal energy, Convecting Solar Ponds, Nonconvecting Solar Ponds, Salinity gradient, Desalination
13. VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF DRILLING OPERATION Amit S. Wani, Gayatri S. Sagavkar, Vaibhav K. Bhate Abstract: Vibrations are produced during any machining process. For drilling operation, analysis of these vibrations plays an important role in order to predict phenomenon of ‘chatter’. This paper emphasizes the analysis of vibration during drilling operation. The output results of analysis are useful to find out amplitude of vibrations produced with respect to drill size and spindle speed for standard rate of recommended feed/min. Analysis is quantified and tabulated as per available machining parameters of ‘THAKUR PELTER DRILLING MACHINE’ which is present in the Workshop of Fr. Conceiceo Rodrigues Institute of Technology, Vashi, Navi Mumbai. The optimum values of spindle speed and feed for maximium amplitude of transverse vibrations with respect to drill size are highlighted in the table and brought to the notice of Workshop Superintendent. The table of formulated results is displayed near this drilling machine. Keywords: Chatter, drilling operation
14. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF RISER FOR SAND CASTING C. M. Choudhari, Nikhil S. Dalal, Akshay P. Ghude, Pratik P. Sankhe, Ashutosh M.Dhotre Abstract: Casting is one of the earliest metals shaping method known to human beings. It is one of the cheapest methods for mass production of any part and can be effectively used to make complex shaped parts which are not easy to manufacture by other production process. Casting process is subjected to many defects and it is necessary to eliminate them. One of the main defects in castings is “Shrinkage Cavity”, which can be eliminated by attaching a Riser to the casting. This paper describes the parameters to be considered while designing a Riser of an optimum size to get higher Casting Yield. Theoretically designed model has been analyzed thermally in ANSYS 12.0 simulation software to ensure that shrinkage cavity is completely eliminated from casting.
15. A GENERALIZED CODE FOR COMPUTING CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECK Debopam Ghosh, Arijit Mitra, Arijit Mukhopadhyay, Aniket Dawn, Devopam Ghosh Abstract: This paper focuses on developing a generalized CRC code where the user can vary the size of the generator polynomial  such as 9 bits (CRC-8), 17 bits (CRC-16), 33 bits (CRC-32), 65 bits (CRC-64). The working of the code has been shown taking an example and the resulting simulations obtained are shown.
16. ADAPTIVE WEB BROWSER Akshay Parashar, Manish Mali, Ranjeet Kumar, Prof.Sarita Ambadekar Abstract: Web browser play important role in World Wide Web (WWW). We go through different website and invest enough time searching relevant URL. The project deals with making a browser that will assist a person to find relevant information satisfying long term recurring goals rather than short term goals and describe our research on learning browser behaviour model for predicting the current information need of web user. Depending upon the user sequence of browsing behaviour it indicates the degree to which page content satisfies user’s need. Thus one’s search experience may be used to help the next users to reduce their searching effort. So, through more and more searching greater experience will be gained by browser. We deploy extensive use of machine learning for the browser to learn user’s behaviour. By such model the searching ability of browser becomes more efficient and faster thus resulting in an intelligent and adaptive web browser. Key Words: Machine learning, WW
17. AUTOMATIC FARMING SYSTEM Kailas Adhav, Abhilesh Wankhede Abstract: Since Olden times man has been cultivating and depending heavily on the plant and crops to arrange for the staple food. To do this he had to toil and severe with labor. As the technology advances people wish for more and more comfort, reliability and fast operation. India is the farmer’s country and major part of the revenue is generated out of the agriculture industry Keeping the above ideology in mind this project propose to design a unit with following features: 1.ploughing 2.seedsowing 3.cutting etc. This study develop an Energy Saving Automatic Farming System with two unit User unit (remote control) & Solar Powered Tractor Unit. From user unit i.e. Wireless remote it gives instruction to the tractor unit to perform various task such as plugging, seed sowing, cutting etc The required power supply for performing various task is obtained from solar panel using tracking and trapping system to obtain maximum solar energy. For automation of tractor unit it uses memory mapping which will be performed by microcontroller in embedded c using Kiel software.
18. KUNAL ASTROCRYPTOGRAHY SECURITY USING DISTANCE FORMULA AND 3D GEOMETRY Kush Jain Abstract: In real world, data security plays an important role where confidentiality, authentication, integrity, non repudiation are given importance. The universal technique for providing confidentiality of transmitted data is cryptography. This paper provides a technique to encrypt the data using distance formula and 3D geometry. Keywords: Distance Formula, 3D Geometry, data security, authentication, cryptography, ASCII
19. PROPOSED CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHM FOR IMPROVING DATA SECURITY Dipankar Som Abstract: Cryptography is a Greek word which means secret writing. However we use this term to refer to the science and arts of transforming the message to make them secure and immune to attacks. Access to stored information has increased greatly. More companies and institution store official and individual information on computer than ever before. So information security is a matter of deep concern. In this paper I have proposed an algorithm which is based on block cipher concept. In this algorithm I have used simple mathematical operations like XOR and shifting operations. Speed and complexity are two important aspects of block ciphers. The block length of the block cipher decides the complexity. The key complexity also imposes a constraint on the length of the block cipher. In my proposed work the keys are generated by a random key generator and a new approach for S-box is used., Key words: Internet security, Encryption, Decryption, Cryptography
20. WEBO-KIT: AN ENHANCED WEB UI TOOLKIT Sukeshni Kantrod, Kanchan Jondhale, Purva Kshatriya, Namita Maharanwar Abstract: Designing UI and backend are one of the main aspects of Web application development. Developers waste a lot time in designing tool like tree view, grid view etc. one by one whenever required as per the requirements of application. Solution to these problems are building UI toolkit library containing commonly required tools, include that library and drag-drop the tool while building application. The existing UI toolkits have less number of tools and do not contain each and every tool, have a lot of ambiguities in their behaviour pattern, look-feel, large in size and have cross browsing problem. There is a need of powerful UI toolkit which will have all necessary tools, consistent behaviour pattern and light in weight. If we compare same tool from different libraries, they may have different properties which can be combined under one library as a feature rich library. Our objective is to combine all the properties of a tool from different available web UI toolkits like kendo, dojo, jQuery UI, YUI etc., providing consistent behaviour pattern, look-feel, cross browser support, add new features and light in weight. On the basis of analysis done on various available toolkits, feature rich and configurable library of commonly used tools is being created. Key words: Cross browsing
21. EFFICIENT MULTI HOP ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR BLUETOOTH DEVICES Ganesh Gupta, Shubham Gupta, Manish Kumar Singh, Durbadal Chattaraj Abstract:On wireless ad hoc network (AHN), ad-hoc mode is a method for wireless devices to directly communicate with each other. Since AHNs are dynamic in nature, they require a dynamic routing protocol to send the message from one source node to destination. Several approaches have been proposed for designing multihop routing protocols in wireless AHNs. Flooding is one of them to discover a dynamic routing path. But Flooding of request packet in the route in wireless AHN creates a huge amount of traffic which leads to high probability of packet collisions. Also it causes significant over head in delivering of packet and hence is inappropriate for the dynamic routing. It also causes more time consumption. In this paper we propose a efficient multi hop routing algorithm to deliver the message using the cache variable for intermediate to reduce a large number of path& hence reducing the traffic generated by normal flooding. We also apply a logic to share the dynamic routing table between different devices in neighborhood. We also propose a scheme at receiver side to receive only one valid message from the flooded message and discard all other flooded messages.
22. WORKING MODEL OF WATER JET CUTTING SYSTEM ON LOW PRESSURE J. N. Mehta, R. Wadgaokar, A. Khatal, M. Chavan Abstract: Cutting of raw materials is one of the most common functions in industries. With the advent of globalization and tough competition from multinational companies, it becomes very essential for production houses to reduce/eliminate wastes due to inefficient cutting methods. Every cutting method is based on the input of energy into the material, in order to overcome the chemical bindings present in the structure of the material. Thermal cutting methods, for example, utilize the energy of chemical reactions, electricity, or light to produce high temperatures in order to melt the material at the cutting kerfs. Mechanical methods utilize the kinetic energy of the moving tool or form ductile materials through the application of pressure. However, these methods causes distortion of material in the heat affected zone. In Water-jet Cutting, the energy of the rapidly moving jet is utilized either in the form of a pure water-jet or abrasive water-jet and then applied to the work piece causing micro-erosion. The cutting water works as a cooling agent of cutting edge, thus allowing for a very high quality cut without producing heat affected zone. Keywords: cutting, micro-erosion, heat-affected zone.
23. STEGANOGRAPHY Arihant Gaggar, Kapil Manek, Nachiket Jain Abstract:Steganography is the art of hiding the information within the carrier file such as image, audio, etc. in such a way that the carrier would appear as an ordinary file to the intruders. Steganography is the writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the sender and intended recipient even realizes that there is a hidden message. By contrast, cryptography obscures the meaning of a message, but it does not conceal the fact that there is a message.