Vol 1 (5) September-November 2013
1. EXTRACTION OF TARTARIC ACID FROM TAMARIND PULP AND ANALYSIS OF THE ACID COMPOSITION IN LEAVES
Gullipalli Santhosh Roopa and Professor V.Kasiviswanat
Abstract: Tamarind a naturally obtained, long lived, evergreen and less expensive raw material. It comprises organic acids like high content of tartaric acid 12-18%, malic acid, citric acid and byproducts like pectin, potassium Bitartrate. The purpose of this research was to extract the tartaric acid from tamarind pulp by hot and cold extraction followed by cooling and by addition of less expensive chemicals. The obtained solid form of acid detected with NMR Spectra and its concentration analyzed with UV spectrophotometer using metavanadate. Where as the composition of acid in powdered form of leaves explored with two methods. By organic extraction using suitable solvent, the composition of acid in leaves is extracted using own making equipment percolator with small lab scale apparatus and waste material like plastic drink bottle and another method is soxhlet apparatus. The extracts obtained from process are added with another suitable solvent and were analyzed by Thin Liquid Chromatography. As a whole the process becomes economically more competitive than other process and to utilize the product in both traditional and agricultural applications.
Key words: Tamarind pulp, tartaric acid, NMR spectra, UV spectrophotometer, equipment with waste material, TLC, agriculture benefit.
2. INFLUENCE OF TELECOMMUNICATION TOWER ON RESPONSE OF HOST STRUCTURE
Vikaskumar Pandey, N.G.Gore, P.J.Salunke and V.G.Sayagavi
Abstract: In the contemporary era, the telecommunication industry plays a great role in human societies and thus much more attention is now being paid to telecommunication towers than it was in the past. As telecommunication tower are the only means of enhancing both the coverage area and network reliability more and more telecommunications tower are installed nowadays. The direction and height of tower along with the antennas mounted on it is completely governed by the functional requirements of network. The most ideal place for tower is on ground but in urban areas the availability of land which would be most ideal is extremely limited giving no alternative but to adopt rooftop tower with marginal adjustment in terms of position. In this present study, the seismic analysis of 4 legged angled section rooftop telecommunication tower has been studied under the effect of design spectrum from Indian seismic code of practice for zone-iii along with wind analysis as per IS 875 (part 3) 1987. The analysis has been performed on tower located on roof of host structure by varying the positions of tower in Etabs software. The stresses in beam grid of rooftop tower foundation, stresses in host structure, retrofitting in host structure, axial forces in tower are the main parameters considered for the study. The host structure also analyzed with flexible base, to see the effect of flexibility of soil on host structure and tower response.
3. DESIGN OF A GAS LIFT SYSTEM TO INCREASE OIL PRODUCTION FOR OFFSHORE WELLS WITH HIGH WATER CUT
Abstract: One of the most important production issues in oil fields is high water production which may lead to wells killing and reduction in an economical production period. With the increment of water production or decrease of reservoir pressure, reservoir drawdown pressure reduces which causes reduction in oil production rate. To preserve the reservoir production, we should apply one of the proposed methods; namely, increasing the reservoir pressure, preventing water source invasion or using artificial lift technique. To compensate this reduction, continuous gas injection into the wells can be used. The injected gas combines with fluid in tubing and the density of the fluid decreases, thereby reducing the hydrostatic pressure loss along the flow path. By utilizing this method fluid can be produced in low flowing pressure through tubing. In this review paper, a study on the condition of some of high water producing oilfield was compared with the offshore R-1 well which was revived using artificial lift methodology to achieve incremental reserve recovery after the well had stopped producing due to water production. By an accurate gas lift design, we can have a rational production from the well with high water cut even more than 90%. Implementation of this method, allows oil production as reserves are depleted and the oil water contact moves up. Based on the results in this paper and we can easily use it in some of the offshore well in India having same well conditions to increase the productivity.
4. THE IMPACT OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF POLYTECHNICS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
Soneye Semiu Adebayo
Abstract: The study was on the Impact of Application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in the administration of Polytechnics in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study population comprised five polytechnics in Ogun State, Nigeria. These polytechnic were: one Federal Polytechnic, one State owned Polytechnic, one Private owned Polytechnic and two ICT based Polytechnics. Sixty subjects were randomly selected from the population. However, related literatures were reviewed from textbooks, journals and past researches. The research instruments were questionnaire which was statically analyzed with contingency tables, while the hypotheses were both tested at 0.05 level of significance using the mean statistic. It was discovered that there is a significant relationship between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the administration of polytechnic. Therefore, the finding revealed that the proprietors of polytechnics (Federal Government, State Government and private individuals) should procure more ICT facilities and equipment to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in administration of polytechnics. This study suggested that administrators of polytechnics should place greater emphasis on ICT in their respective institutions to foster capacity building of human resources, material resources and financial resources.
Keywords: Application; Information and Communications Technology (ICT); Administration; Polytechnics; Electronic Learning
5. A NEW TECHNIQUE TO ENCRYPT A CODE WORD
Abstract: The principal goal of designing any encryption algorithm is to hide the original message and send the non-readable text message to the receiver so that secret message communication can take place over the web. The strength of an encryption algorithm depends on the difficulty of cracking the original message. A number of symmetric and asymmetric key encryption algorithms like DES, TRIPLE DES, AES, BLOWFISH, RSA has been developed to provide greater security affects one over the other. I have described a protocol in this paper, which fits the technique to realistic communication environments, and extend the security and the range of applications of the technique. The basic motive behind the new approach is not to use a ‘key’. Encryption is done by the use of the logic operations amongst the bits of the code word. This can be said as "security through obscurity" where the shared secret is not an encryption key, but the encryption algorithm itself. This algorithm can prove to be an efficient method of encryption and can reduce the complexity of a system that encrypts or decrypts a message. Analysis has been done which shows the advantages and the limitations of this algorithm. With this new approach we are implementing a technique to enhance the security level and to further reduce the time for encryption and decryption.
Keywords: Cryptography, Symmetric key cryptography, Asymmetric key cryptography, DES, AES, Triple DES, Blowfish, RSA, DBNS and TBNS
6. A REVIEW ON THE MATERIALS USED FOR BEARING AND FAILURE BEHAVIOR
Nishant Jonathan Rubens, Seshagiri. R and Harihara Sakthi Sudhan P
Abstract: This paper highlights the metallic, polymeric and ceramic materials used to manufacture the bearings, the kind of failures experienced with those materials and their causes. The failure mechanism of bearings and influence of various elements on their properties are reviewed. It is identified from the study that the failure is mainly provoked by initiating the surface micro crack/flake and then subsequently propagating them to failure. Materials influencing wear resistance to control the material removal rate without much compromising the fracture toughness are discussed. The advanced composite materials used in bearings are also discussed. A review on nano composites is also done to turn out the research on bearing materials towards nano composites. The evolution of MMC, nano composites is investigated to come to a conclusion on stimulating a research work to make a better material for bearings at room temperature and cryogenic temperature. A suitable polymer material is suggested for carrying out the research at cryogenic temperature for low temperature application of bearings.
Keywords: Bearing Materials, Failure Causes, Research Exposure
7. A SECURED AUTHENTICATED WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE
Priyanka U, Remya K R, Reenu R and Sai Subha V
Abstract: Whenever media contents transmitted through the network, compressed and encrypted media data is used so it is important to give proper protection to the data items to avoid unauthorized access and for that we need to enhance media authentication and for that the compressed encrypted media data which is used to distribute through the network is watermarked for providing proof of ownership or distributorship. For doing compression JPEG 2000 compression and while doing compression the data is packed to low number of bits and to this data encryption is applied so stream cipher technique is used for avoiding media quality degradation and also this technique allow to do watermarking in a predictable manner. And a robust watermarking algorithm is used for watermarking this compressed and encrypted media data.
Keywords: Watermarking, JPEG2000
8. PLANNING SCHEDULING OF GRADE SEPARATOR
Srikanth .R and Manjunath K.R
Abstract: Planning, scheduling plays a vital role in improving the prospects of successful implementation of infrastructure projects. Project planning involves defining and coordinating activities and work tasks, preparing work schedules, assigning and allocating resources to competing activities and developing an acceptable budget. The scheduling is just one of the tools will be used to manage activities and duration.. The scope of this work is to Consistent view of project status and issues, is to ensure that the project is completed within the allocated and approved budget; Work Break Down structure will be prepared, duration and predecessors for each activity will be assigned, Critical Path will be determined, Resource analyzing and leveling will be done for entire,. Estimating is to assign resources to each activity in the activity list. Total duration and cost will come to know by using Microsoft Project. Based on prediction of future traffic at junction on chord road the grade separator is been projected. Accordingly the planning scheduling of grade separator at junction on chord road is been prepared. An effective planning, scheduling will help in emerging problems and taking time correctively action.
Keywords: Planning, Scheduling, Resource, Activity, Duration and Microsoft Project.
9. SECURED LIFI (SECURED VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION)
Mohit Hapani, Mangesh Joshi and Rajkumar Maradia
Abstract: Future electric lights will be comprised of white LEDS (light emitting diode).White led’s with high power output are expected to serve in the next generation of lamps. An indoor visible data transmission system utilizing white led lights is proposed. In the system, these devices are used not only for illuminating rooms but also for an optical wireless communication system. This system is suitable for private networks such as consumer communication networks. However it remains necessary to investigate the properties of white led’s when they are used as optical transmitters. Based on numerical analyses and computer simulations it can be used for indoor optical transmission.Moreover secured transmission is possible using steganography and password prompt for exchange
10. DESIGN SIMULATION & IMPLEMENTATION OF FOUR QUADRANT OPERATION OF DC DRIVE
Vijay M. Purohit and Milind S. Marathe
Abstract: Use of microcontroller based system has given flexibility for implementation of closed loop operation, to get variable speed of DC motor irrespective of supply fluctuation and load variation by incrementing or decrementing firing angle for dual convertor. In dual converters with non circulating current, only one converter operates at a time and another converter is temporarily blocked from conducting by withdrawing firing pulses to the Thyristors. Since only one converter operates at a time no reactors are required between the converters. The paper includes details on design of zero crossing detectors to detect zero crossing instant of A.C. input to converters to determine firing angle, control circuit is designed to read some input parameters like 8-bit digitized set speed and actual speed from taco generator, use of two double pole switch to read direction and acceleration. Current limiting circuit using Hall effect IC to detect threshold voltage level corresponding to desire current limit to provide over load protection. Software development in assembly language for 89s51 microcontroller to provide real time control.