Vol 2 (5) August - September 2014
1. Effect of Fiber Length on the Short-Term Flexural Creep Behavior of Polypropylene
C.Subramanian, Abdulrahman Khalfan Hassan Al Mamari and S.Senthilvelan
Abstract: Injection molded long fiber thermoplastic components are being used in recent days as a viable replacement for metals in many applications .Present work focus on the effect of fiber length on the short-term flexural creep performance of fiber reinforced thermoplastic polypropylene. Unreinforced polypropylene, 20 wt % short and 20 wt % long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene materials was injection-molded into flexural test specimens. Short-term flexural creep tests were performed for 2 h duration on molded specimen at various stress levels with the aid of in-house developed flexural creep fixture. Experimental creep performance of polypropylene composites for 2 h is utilized to predict the creep performance with the aid of four parameter HRZ model and compared with 24 h experimental creep data. Creep strain was found to be increased with respect to time for all the test materials and found to be sensitive with respect to the stress level. Test results also revealed that long fiber reinforced thermoplastic material possessed enhanced creep resistance over their counter parts and HRZ model is sufficient enough to predict creep performance of polypropylene composites over wide range of stress.
Keywords: Injection molding, flexural creep, thermoplastic, creep, strain
2. E-Waste: An Emerging Problem of Innovative Society
Rahila N. Gadi and Nabeel Ahmed N.Gadi
Abstract: In the past few years there is a revolution in electronic industry, which increases the volume and varieties of both solid and hazardous wastes. Urbanization Industrialization, fast changes in technologies leave a negative impact on health of human beings. Also increases the pollution in air, land and water. A growing municipal waste contains hazardous electrical and electronics products. When dumped in landfill will pollute the environment badly. This waste is usually named as E-waste
(Electrical an Electronics Waste).In the absence of suitable techniques and protective measures, recycling e-waste can result in toxic emissions to the air, water and soil and pose a serious health and environmental hazard-waste is assuming serious proportions in developing countries and urgent steps need to be taken to mitigate this problem. This paper highlights the problem posed by e-waste and its hazards on environment and
Keywords: E-waste (Electrical &Electronic waste), carcinogen, landfills
3. Trend Analysis of Climate Variability in Salalah, Oman
Mohammed Al-Habsi , Luminda Gunawardhana and Ghazi Al-Rawas
Abstract: The frequency and intensity of weather events are expected to change as climate change, which may result in more frequent and intensive disasters such as flash floods and persistent droughts. Subsequent impacts will affect regions in different ways, but projected to worsen conditions in water scares countries like Oman. In Oman, changes in precipitation and temperature have already begun to be detected, although a comprehensive analysis to determine long-term trends has yet to be conducted. We analyzed daily precipitation and temperature records in Salalah city of Oman, mainly focusing on extremes. A set of climate indices, defined in the RClimDex software package, were derived from the longest available daily series (precipitation over the period 1943-2011 and temperature over the period 1991-2011). Results showed significant changes in daily minimum and maximum temperatures associate with cooling as well as warming. The annual number of cold nights (percentage of days when daily minimum temperature (TN) less than 10th percentile of that during base period: 1991-2000) decreased by 8 days per decade (p-value = 0.3). On the other hand, the annual number of warm nights (percentage of days when daily minimum temperature (TN) larger than 90th percentile of that during base period) increased by 10 days per decade (p-value = 0.3). In contrast, the annual occurrence of cold days increased by 11 days per decade (p-value = 0.25), while the annual occurrence of warm days decreased by 4 days per decade (p-value = 0.62). The significant trends apparent in minimum temperatures reveal that Salalah area has become less cold rather than hotter. Moreover,
contrary trends in minimum and maximum temperatures indicate that, in long-term, daily temperature range has decreased in this area. Annual total precipitation averaged over the period 1943-2011 is 95 mm, which shows a statistically weak negative trend with a -2 mm/10 yr rate. There is also a tendency for precipitation extremes according to many indices. The contribution from very wet days to the annual precipitation totals steadily increases with significance at 87% level. The positive trend in simple daily intensity index is also clear and reasonably significant (p-value = 0.29). Results of all these indices lead us to conclude that precipitation intensity in Salalah has increased while mean
precipitation changes are less marked.
4. Using a New Programme to Predict Thermal Comfort as a Base to Design Energy Efficient Buildings
Hanan Al-Khatri and Mohamed B. Gadi
Abstract: A strong relationship relates the thermal comfort and the consumption of energy, especially in the hot arid climate where the installation of HVAC systems is unavoidable. In fact, it has been reported that the HVAC systems are responsible for consuming huge amounts of the total energy used by the buildings that can globally reach up to 40% of the total primary energy requirement. The future estimations indicate that the energy consumption is likely to continue growing in the developed economies to exceed that of the developed countries in 2020. Under these situations, it seems that the shift towards more energy efficient buildings is not an option. Because part of any successful environmental design is to understand the potentials of the site, the proposed programme (THERCOM) assists in weighing the indoor and outdoor thermal comfort in different climates in order to provide better understanding of the site environment as well as testing the thermal comfort chances of the
Keywords: energy efficient buildings, indoor thermal comfort, outdoor thermal comfort, passive design, arid climate, equatorial climate, warm temperate climate
5. Wadi Flow Simulation Using Tank Model in Muscat, Oman
Mohammed Al-Housni, Luminda Gunawardhana and Ghazi Al-Rawas
Abstract: In Oman, changes in precipitation intensity and frequency have already begun to be detected, although the attributed impacts, such as, flash flooding is poorly understood. For example, the supper cyclonic storm, hurricane Gonu in 2007 led to the worst natural disaster on record in Oman, with total rainfall reached 610 mm near the cost. The cyclone and flash flood caused about $4 billion in damage (2007 USD) and 49 deaths. The objective of this study is to develop a Wadi-flow simulation model to understand precipitation-river discharge relationship in Muscat. A lumped-parameter, non-linear, rainfall-runoff model was used. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO-56) modified Hargreaves equation was used for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ET0). Precipitation and temperature data during 1996-2003 were obtained from the Muscat-airport meteorological station. Observed river discharges during 26-30, March 1997 were used to calibrate the
model and observations during 1997-2003 were used to verify our simulations. Simulated water discharges agreed with the corresponding observations, with the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient equals to 0.88. This developed model will later be used with a set of General Circulation Model scenarios (GCM) to understand the Wadi-flow variations under changing climate conditions.
6. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Parth Panchal and Meghana Shroff
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a selfconfiguring infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected by wireless. The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each device to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic. AODV is a novel algorithm for the operation of such ad hoc networks. This routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic self-starting network, as required by users wishing to utilize ad hoc networks. AODV provides loop free routes even while repairing broken links. We attempt to build such a network using AODV.
Keywords: MANET, AODV, Ad hoc, network simulator NS
7. Constraints Faced by Rural Women Members in Functioning of SHGs in Allahabad District of Uttar Pradesh
Rukhsana, Dipak Kumar Bose and Priyanka Singh
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to study the constraints faced by rural women members in functioning of Self Help Groups. Hundred and fifty rural women members of SHGs from Allahabad district represented the sample for the study. A structured interview schedule was used for the collection of data. The findings revealed that the major constraints faced by the women members were lack of formal education, no freedom to take decisions, dominance of group leaders, decision made at administrative level, less cooperation of officials , less profit, travel expenses for disbursement of loan, poor monitoring and technical guidance, inadequate space for enterprise, high cost of raw materials, lack of storage facilities, non-cooperation between educated and uneducated people and non cooperation from family members. These constraints may be solved through extension strategies like adult education, vocational training of members, facilitating of bank officials and providing proper marketing facilities.
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