International Journal of Students' Research in Technology & Management, Vol 3 (4) April 2015
1. An Iterative Lifting Scheme on DCT Coefficients for Image Coding
Abstract: Image coding is considered to be more effective, as it reduces number of bits required to store and/or to transmit image data. Transform based image coders play a significant role as they decorrelate the spatial low level information. It is found utilization in International compression standards such as JPEG, JPEG 2000, MPEG and H264. The choice of transform is an important issue in all these transforms coding schemes. Most of the literature suggests either Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) or Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In this proposed work, the energy preservation of DCT coefficients is analysed, and to down sample these coefficients, lifting scheme is iteratively applied so as to compensate the artifacts that appear in the reconstructed picture, and to yield the higher compression ratio. This is followed by scalar quantization and entropy coding, as in JPEG. The performance of the proposed iterative lifting scheme, employed on decorrelated DCT coefficients is measured with standard Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and the results are encouraging.
Keywords: Image coding, Bits, JPEG, DWT, DCT
2. A New Metamaterial Printed Microstrip Yagi -Array Antenna for ISM band Applications
Amalasofiah S., and Preethi. C.
Abstract: A traditional yagi antenna is used for broadband applications. A New Metamaterial Printed Microstrip Yagi -Array Antenna has been introduced here. This antenna is found to operate at 2.4GHz. The microstrip yagi-array antenna is loaded with artificial split ring resonators (SRRs) which is used for achieving the metamaterial effect in the structure. The overall circuit size of the designed antenna is 11.5*11.5*0.25mm3 with reduced cross polarization and the substrate used is FR4 epoxy with dielectric constant 4.4 which is readily available. The designed antenna achieved about 4dB of gain and it also achieved a high directional characteristic of 5-9dB in the operating band. The designed antenna had a minimum return loss of about -8dB. The achievement of narrowband width for ISM band application enhances the efficiency of the antenna at the specified band and reduces the interference level.
Keywords: Front-to-back (F/B) ratio, gain, SRR, microstrip, yagi array
3. AGRO SENSORS
M. R. Suja B arathi and B. Keerthana
Abstract: Soil nutrient is detected by the use of ISFETs and the corresponding current is obtained from it according to the variation in concentration of the nutrient in soil and their pH. The use of metal oxide coated semiconductors for gas detection is high nowadays. The Ion sensitive field effect transistor has the electrode. This on reaction with the analyst changes its resistance value and corresponding signals are generated and the transducer unit in the sensor gives the varying current output. This could be then processed that is converted to voltage, amplified and then given to a window detector where in the voltage obtained from the sensor could be tested for it be in between two reference voltage levels and these reference voltage levels represent the level of nutrients in the soil either it is deficient, in surplus or in sufficient amounts. This could be used to make the LEDs glow. It proves to be an easy way of observing the soil nutrient content even by an illiterate. The checking of soil nutrient content could be automated and made periodic by the use of microcontroller, the feedback mechanism involving the soil’s nutrient content value as the common input and the ideal or required value as the reference input.
Keywords: Introduction, ISFET, non-inverting amplifier, Window detector
4. Artificial Neural Network Based Smell Simulator for Visualization
R.Shifana Patcha and Dr. M. Maheswari
Abstract: The continued progress towards higher resolution screen Is a tr experience on the screen and Scentthat’s can be the powerful ashame simulator of memory and emotions. The idea of Smell Simulator for Visualization can make it possible. Smell-O-Vision was a system that released odor during the projection of a film so that the viewer could smell what was happening in the movie. A typical Smell synthesizer is essentially a box of various scented oils with some kind of spreading mechanism, like a fan. The box receives a signal from, for example a video game which tells to release an apple scent. Like in laser printer, this produces all the colours from the three basic colours (Red, Blue and Green). So, if single apple- scented oil isn’t avail would mix to create something close to that desired apple scent. Currently the smell-O-vision system can produce only one smell at a time and that too with increased delay and noise. We have aimed to produce our smell simulator using neural networks so that delay problem can be minimized. Smell Simulator for Visualization can become prevalent in consumer homes, and we can even literally stop and smell the roses in the game we play and shows we watch.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Odour Producing Machine, Smell-O-Vision, Smelling Screen, Smell Simulator.
5. ATM Locator
Bharath and Vamsi
Abstract: In this paper, we focus on an automated teller machineintegrated with ATM locator device. When particular ATM is not working it helps you to find the closest ATMs that can provide surcharge free cash withdrawals for your Money Pass network card. It also finds the direction to nearby ATMs using built in GPS (global positioning system). The GPS will give you the accurate location of your nearby ATMs. Since no ATM had this option if we implement this it will benefit the card holders and customer satisfaction level will be increased.
Keyword: IoT, customer satisfaction, ATM, GPS
6. Intelligent Traffic Control System Using Ad-Hoc Wireless sensor Systems
J.Isaac Henderson and M. Aravind
Abstract: This paper deals with designing an automatic traffic control system which works on principle of TRAFFIC DENSITY monitored by Sensors on each side which provides direct information to microcontroller which rerforms decision making to allow traffic based on density. The three density zones are low, medium and high. In each zone an ad hoc sensor is placed. Each sensor will check the presence of the vehicle in the zone using infrared technology and then ad hoc sensor sends the data to master ad hoc. To locate the sensor, each sensor of different zone is addressed by user and that address is fed to the master ad hoc sensor. This master ad hoc sensor will arrange the data from various sensors in an 8 bit data format. It then performs the required processing to determine the green signal time for each side. It has an exceptional system for high priority vehicles like ambulance, as it senses the direction of arrival of these vehicles and gives a green corridor. The main advantage over conventional system is that a side with heavy traffic doesn’t have to wait unreasonably while a side with no/less traffic gets an equal amount of time as that of heavy traffic side which is irascible. This is an improved system based on preference for urgency/density of traffic. This can prove useful in especially Junctions of importance, thereby mediating traffic flow correctly.
Keywords: AD-HOC wireless network, Intel 8051 MC, Intel 8255 Interfacing, Sound Sensor, Traffic density
7. QR Code Based Security System to Prevent Unauthorized Access
Abstract: In urban areas one of the main reasons for theft is due to unauthorized people who come as plumbers, carpenters, electricians and rob the house. Among the various criminal activity cases it can be seen that and maximum cases are house break in. So this system efficiently tackles the problem. The system consists of a camera and PIR sensor which is placed at the balcony of house, which is used to detect an intruder, and a mobile application which will send real time QR code to a Wi-Fi module and a guest.
Keywords: PIR sensor, Wi-Fi module, Microcontroller, Encryption, Database, QR code, Decryption.
8. Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB) using IoT and Smart Grid
P. Deepak and Z. Anees Hussain
Abstract: Current energy policy and climate mitigation goals require distinct reductions of the primary energy demand in the building sector. The existing building stock poses challenge since clear-cut technical and economical retrofit strategies for different types of existing buildings are still not established. The goal of the study is to identify such retrofit strategies to achieve optimal cost levels and to assess costs and benefits of nearly zero energy buildings (nZEB). Firstly building types are defined by covering single-family houses, multi-family houses, office buildings and school buildings. Secondly, a large set of generic energy efficiency measures are described, covering seven strategic fields, namely building envelope measures, heating and hot water supply technologies and fuel choice, ventilation and lighting systems, electricity and district heat mixes. This covers the usage of smart home appliances, eco-friendly building ventilation system. Thirdly, energy performance is calculated based on technical and physical characteristics and using building energy balance software. Fourthly, investment costs and life cycle costs are established based on unitary costs of building elements and building technologies. Cost-effectiveness is determined based on he net present value method which is compared to the annuity method for a couple of cases. The integration of smart grid and IoT(Internet of Things) is a new concept for conserving more
Keywords: smart appliances, nZEB, smart grid
9. PRIVACY INFORMATION PROTECTION IN AN ENCRYPTED COMPRESSED H.264 VIDEO BITSTREAM
Pradeep Rajagopalan and Sanjay Kumar Gengaiyan
Abstract: The paper presents that encryption of compressed video bit streams and hiding privacy information to protect videos during transmission or cloud storage. Digital video sometimes needs to be stored and processed in an encrypted format to maintain security and privacy. Here, data hiding directly in the encrypted version of H.264/AVC video stream is approached, which includes the following three parts. By analyzing he property of H.264/AVC codec, the code words of intra prediction modes, the code words of motion vector differences, and the code words of residual coefficients are encrypted with stream ciphers. Then, a data hider may embed additional data in the encrypted domain by using wrapping technique, without knowing the original video content. The paper results shows that used methods provides better performance in terms of computation efficiency, high data security and video quality after decryption. The parameters such as RMSE, PSNR, CC are evaluated to measure its efficiency
Keywords: Privacy, H.264 Compression, chaos encryption, Bit wrapping based data hiding