YUVA Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol 1(1) March 2015 [eISSN 2395-6526]
1. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS WITH INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE AND PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS [Case Report]
Dr. J. D. Lakhani, Dr. Arti Muley, Dr. Jignesh Lodhari and Dr. Abhinam Patel
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune condition of unknown etiology. It may result in variety of extra-articular manifestations including respiratory manifestations. It mainly involves pleura but can also affect lung parenchyma in form of interstitial lung disease. However, pulmonary tuberculosis in a case of rheumatoid arthritis is not seen commonly. There are two studies which reported occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients of RA probably because of reduced immunity related to treatment with steroids and eternacept. However, there is rarity of such reports from developing countries.
Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lungs diseases, Immunity, Pulmonary
2. A RARE CASE OF TRACHEOSOPHAGIAL FISTULA WITH ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA AND TETRALOGY OF FALLOT DIAGNOSED DURING NEONATAL RESUSCITATION [Case Report]
Dr. Suchismita Panda and Dr. Rishav Raj
Abstract: The tracheosophagial fistula with esophageal atresia is the most common congenital anamoly of the esophagus. Congenital TEF has incidence of 1:2500-3000 live births. It has been seen that neonates with congenital esophageal atresia / Tracheosophagial fistula often present with minimal lung pathology and excellent lung compliance. The surgical management is right lateral thoracotomy or thoracoscopic primary repair occasionally staged repair is indicated for long –gap atresia. Neonates with TEF and EA frequently have associated anamolies described by acronymn VACTERAL. These anamolies and their associated incidences include VERTEBRAL 17%, ANAL 12%, CARDIAC 20%, TRACHEOSOPHAGIAL FISTULA and ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA, RENAL 16%, LIMBS 10% and other midline defects (cleft lip and palate 2%), urogenital abnormalities 5%.
Keywords: Tracheosophagial Fistula, Esophageal Atresia, Urogenital Abnormalities
3. HHH SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE [Case Report]
Dr Swarupa Panda and Dr Jatin Kumar Majhi
Abstract: Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is characterized by variable clinical presentation and age of onset [Neonatal onset (~12% of affected individuals)] Infants are normal for the first 24-48 hours followed by onset of symptoms related to hyperammonemia (poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, low temperature, rapid breathing). Information on long-term outcome is limited. Infancy, childhood and adult presentation (~88%). Affected individuals may present with: Chronic neurocognitive deficits (including developmental delay, ataxia, spasticity, learning disabilities, cognitive deficits and/or unexplained seizures); acute encephalopathy secondary to hyperammonemic crisis precipitated by a variety of factors; and chronic liver dysfunction (unexplained elevation of liver transaminases with or without mild coagulopathy, with or without mild hyperammonemia and protein intolerance). Neurologic findings and cognitive abilities can continue to deteriorate despite early metabolic control that prevents hyperammonemia.
Keywords: HHH Syndrome, Neonatal, Developmental delay
4. A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON THE CHOICE OF TREATMENT WITH CPAP AND EARLY SURFACTANT IN EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT [Original Article]
Dr. Rishav Raj
Abstract: As we know that surfactant treatment at less than 2 hrs life reduces mortality as well as morbidity from respiratory failure in preterm infants. Preterm infants with established respiratory distress syndrome when administered with surfactant has decreased the risk of chronic lung diseases. Many studies have shown that the administration of surfactant does not have a significant impact on the risk of subsequent neuro-developmental impairment.
New synthetic surfactants with surfactant protein like activity are promising new treatments for surfactant deficiency disorders surfactant replacement by bolus or slow infusion in infants with severe meconium aspiration syndrome improved oxygenation and reduce severity of respiratory failure, air leak and for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Not only this, surfactant improved oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation but CPAP with or without exogenous surfactant may reduce the need for additional surfactant and incidence of BPD and increased morbidity.
Keywords: Low birth weight, surfactants, Respiratory distress syndrome
5. MALIGNANT INFANTILE OSTEOPETROSIS: TWO CASE REPORTS [Case Reports]
Pawan Rao Yalamanchali, Abinash Samal, G S Kejriwal
Abstract: Osteopetrosis designated by Karshner (1926) formerly known as ‘Marble Bones’ by Albers-Schonberg is a rare hereditary, generalized disorder of bone characterized by a significant increase in the density of the skeletal tissues and failure of tubulization, with persistence of calcified cartilage. The present article documents two cases showing features of osteopetrosis in conventional radiography, in a 2-year-old child and a 4 year child came within an interval of 1 year to Maharajah’s Institute of Medical Sciences , Vizianagram, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Keywords: Osteopetrosis, Marble Bones, Bone disorder